定语从句中,引导词指代先行词

I like music that I can dance to.

I know the student who is lazy.

He gave me a book which is interesting.

关系代词用法

that

  1. 指人 (who/whom)

The man that/who is standing by the door is our teacher.

  1. 指物 (which)

I like the music that/which I can dance to.

who/whom

  1. who(作主语/宾语)

The teacher who teaches English is from the USA.

  1. whom(仅作宾语)

The boy who/whom I met on the way is my friend.

which

  1. 作主语

The book which is on the desk is mine.

  1. 作宾语(可省略)

The story which he told us is interesting.

关系副词用法

关系副词可替换为”介词+which”

Wuhan is the place where I can live.

此句中”where”可换为”in which”

同样的:

This is the reason why he refused our offer.

此句中”why”可换为”for which”

如果先行词能作为定语从句谓语动词的宾语,则用”which”

例如:

This is the village wherewhich I visited last year.

此句中先行词是”village”,从句中谓语动词是”visited”,则有

I visited the village.

此时不能用where而必须用which

同理:

I will never forget the days whatwhich I spent in the countryside.

whose/which转换公式

whose + n. = the + n. + of which = of which +n.

主谓一致

Tom knows the teachers who are playing basketball.

此句中先行词是”teachers”,依据主谓一致原则,从句中的系动词需用”are”

同理:

He is the only one of the doctors who has two cars.

定语从句五大考点

介词后只能跟”which”和”whom”

This is the room in which my grandfather live.

先行词前出现序数词/唯一性/最高级,引导词只能用”that”

例如下面例句中出现了表示”唯一性”的”the only”,则引导词只能用”that”

You are the only person that understands me.

同理,如在句中出现”next”或”second”等序数词,引导词只能用”that”

The next train that arrives is from Beijing.

Tom is the second boy that fall into the pit.

如果先行词前是all, many, much, (a)little, (a)few, some…等不定代词,引导词只能是that

That is all that she remembered.

He didn’t know a few that

如果先行词后有” , “则引导词不能用that(此类定语从句也称为非限定性定语从句)

I deeply love my mother, who is 60 years old.

“A and B”类句型,如表示”一人一物”,则引导词用that

I can still remember the person and some pictures that I see in the room.

补充考点

当先行词是anyone/ones…时,引导词只能用who

Anyone who works on math problems must be careful.

当先行词是those,引导词只能用who

Success will belong to those who never say impossible.

当主句是以who/which开头的特殊疑问句,且先行词是指物或指人的名词,引导词只能用that

Who is the girl that is painting on the blackboard?

Which is the book that I red last night?

关系代词在定语从句中充当表语,引导词只能用that

Our school is not the one that it used to be.

如先行词本身是that,引导词只能用which

What’s that which you put on your desk?

主句是there-be句型,只能用that

There’s a skirt that belong to Lucy in the bag.